Please answer each question one-half page each (double-spaced) for a total of three pages (not including Title and References Pages if you choose to include them). For multiple choice questions, CLEARLY indicate your response (a, b, c, or d) so that you do not have to search and try to determine the response in your short answer explanation. Number each response so each that it is clear where one question ends and the next question starts.
1. According to Aronson’s analysis of the Challenger disaster, which of the following most likely did NOT contribute to the disaster?
a. NASA had already conducted two dozen successful launches.
b. A schoolteacher was on board, which had created more publicity than normal.
c. At NASA, a lift-off decision was a more desirable decision than a delay.
d. NASA engineers assured management that all safety measures had been taken.
Explain why you selected this answer.
2. Aronson and O’Leary conducted a study designed to encourage water conservation among male students showering at the university field house. Under what conditions were students less likely to conserve water? Explain the conditions under which students were more likely to conserve water (by turning off the shower while soaping up).
3. Why did Milgram conduct his experiments on obedience? What features, according to Article #4 in Readings About the Social Animal, helped to account for the high levels of obedience displayed by Milgram’s subjects?
4. Define and give examples of compliance, identification, and internalization. Which of these has the most permanent influence on an individual’s behavior? Select one of these responses and describe an instance of your own behavior that might be or have been the result of this particular type of social influence.
5. Why don’t bystanders come to the aid of victims of injury or crime? Summarize the reasons for non-intervention by bystanders. Summarize the conditions under which some bystanders do respond to someone in distress.