4 questions should be answered based on the attached readings 4 readings



Estes, J. 2000. “Food as Medicine.” In The Cambridge World History of Food, edited by K. F. Kiple and K. C. Ornelas, 1534-1553. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Obringer, Frédéric. 2001. “A Song Innovation in Pharmacotherapy: Some Remarks on the Use of White Arsenic and Flowers of Arsenic” In Innovation in Chinese Medicine, edited by Elisabeth Hsu, 192-213. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Li. Shang-Jen. 2010. “Eating Well in China: Diet and Hygiene in Nineteenth-Century Treaty Ports.” In Health and Hygiene in Chinese East Asia: Policies and Publics in the Long Twentieth Century, edited by Angela Ki Che Leung and Charlotte Furth, 109-131. Durham: Duke University Press.

Kuriyama, Shigehisa. 2016. “The Geography of Ginseng, and the Strange Alchemy of Needs.” In The Botany of Empire in the Long Eighteenth Century, edited by Y. Bataki, Sarah B. Cahalan and Anatole Tchikine, 61-72. Washington D. C.: Dumbarton Oaks.

  • 1. In “Food as Medicine,” what is the idea of “nutraceutical”? According to the author, how had the relationship between food and medicine changed over time in different cultures? (Give at least three concrete examples) What factors had facilitated these changes?
  • 2. What is the main point of Obringer’s article? According to the author, how was arsenics used in Chinese medicine? How did the innovation come about? What was the relationship between diet and pharmacotherapy in this case? With the information you have learned from the article, how would you revise the article to improve its readability?
  • 3. In “Eating Well in China,” how does the author argue the relationship between diet and hygiene in the contexts of European imperialistic presences in China? (Consider the nature and definitions of “diet” and “hygiene” according to the author) According to the author, how did the contemporary European medical practitioners, scientists, and politicians understand “acclimatization” and how did they apply it in the recommendation of a proper diet? How did the scientific racism play a role into the consideration of food consumption in China, in comparison with that in India?
  • 4. According to Kuriyama, how had ginseng used differently in different locations? What factors were related to these different usages? What are the answers to the author’s own question: “[w]hy wasn’t ginseng embracedinto Western medicine once it became widely known and available?” (Include medical and non-medical reasons)