1. Microevolution refers to ___________ .
a. none of these
b. the creation of a new species
c. only changes that occur due to natural selection
d. only changes that occur due to mutations
e. any change in the frequency of alleles in the gene pool of a population
2. What is the term for the specific microhabitat in which a particular population lives and the way that population obtains resources and responds to predators in that habitat?
c. ecological niche
3. “Selective agents” act on the __________ of inidividuals within an ecological niche.
4. Fitness can be defined as a measure of how well a particular individual or group is adapted to the requirements imposed by the environment.
5. Fitness varies with environmental circumstances.
6. After World War II, mosquitoes were controlled in most parts of the world by spraying the insecticide DDT (Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane). But after years of repeated sprayings, the number of mosquitoes increased in spite of the continued use of DDT. If the increase in mosquitoes was due to natural selection, which of the scenarios below is accurate?
a. After learning that DDT was harmful to humans, government officials passed laws that diluted the concentration of DDT in sprays, which led to a resurgence in mosquito populations.
b. each new generation of mosquitoes grew up within the DDT environment and gradually developed immunity.
c. DDT-resistant mosquitoes survived to breed, as did their offspring, until more and more of each year’s mosquitoes were resistant.
d. mosquitoes exposed to nonlethal concentrations of DDT learned to avoid DDT-contaminated food.
7. A person who develops the disease sickle-cell anemia is ______________.
a. homozygous for the HbS allele
b. homozygous for the HbA allele
d. heterozygous (HbA/HbS).
8. Evolutionary biologists have discovered that in regions with high incidence of malaria, heterozygous HbA/HbS individuals have an advantage, because they are resistent to malaria. This has led “balanced polymorphism” between HbS and HbA alleles among demes (local populations) in regions with high incidence of malaria, despite the fact that homozygous HbS individuals develop sickle-cell anemia, a debilitating disease.
9. In a case of balanced polymorphism resulting from heterozygous advantage the greatest fitness is associated with the genotype ______
d. AA and Aa
10. According to evolutionary scientists, characteristics that increase the success of a male in an environment in which females choose their male mates will increase over time through a mechanism known as _______________.
a. sexual selection
b. natural selection
c. kin selection
d. genetic equilibrium
11. According to evolutionary scientists, characteristics that increase the success of a male in an environment where he must compete with other males for female mates will increase over time through a mechanism known as __________.
a. natural selection
b. heterozygous advantage
c. kin selection
d. sexual selection
12. Evolutionary biologists define “altruism” as behavior that _________.
a. benefits the reproductive success of both the individual doing the altruism and the other individual involved
b. decreases the reproductive success of the individual, but benefits the reproductive success of another individual
c. increases the reproductive success of the individual, but decreases the reproductive success of another individual
d. benefits reproductive success of another individual without having any effect on the altruistic individual
13. Evolutionary biologists claim that an individual who acts to increase the fitness of a close relative is demonstrating ___________.
a. natural selection
b. gene flow
c. sexual selection
d. kin selection
e. founder effect
14. Macroevolution refers to ______________.
a. changes in allele frequencies within a population from one generation to the next
b. how the evolution of one species affects the evolution of another
c. the relationship between humans and large domesticated animals
d. large-scale evolutionary changes such as speciation
15. The basic unit of classification in Linnaeus’s scheme is the species. A species is defined as _______.
a. a group of individuals that can mates and reproduce fertile offspring
b. a deme with heterzygous advantage
c. a group that can be distinguished phenotypically from other groups
d. a group high on the food chain that affects other groups and the environment through trophic cascades
16. Choose the taxonomic group (taxon) that contains the greatest number of organisms.
17. Modern biological classifications are based on hyptheses concerning ____________.
a. artificial selection
b. evolutionary relationships
d. fixity of life forms
18. Structures that have evolved from a common ancestry are called __________ .
19. Similarities in the anatomy of species that are not due to a recent common ancestor are known as _________ traits.
a. homoplastic (analogous)
20. Biologists classify the three bones of the forelimb in vertebrates (including humans, frogs, and birds) as ____________ traits.