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noting specific advantages of using a systematic approach to work through research problems. Ask at least one question in response to an original peer post that you would like the author to explore further. no plagiarize, spell check, and check your grammar. Please use the references below

To evaluate the validity of psychological research, it is important to have knowledge about the various statistical concepts, in order to accurately summarize and draw conclusions about the data that is collected. There are four different scales used when scaling or specifying the relationship between conceptual variables and numbers on a quantitative measure which includes; Nominal Scales, Ordinal Scales, Interval Scales, and Ratio Scales. Nominal Scales are unique and differ from the other measuring scales because it is used to identify similar characters in a group, as opposed to measuring and showing numerical results to compute variables.

Nominal Scales could include measuring similarities in religion, gender, age, social and economic status, race, level of education, and all other variables that measure characteristics. Viewing Nominal Scales as qualitative, as opposed to quantitative, is a helpful way to understand the differences between measuring scales because they are used to identify and not measure. (Malec, T. & Newman, M., 2013) It is important to understand the dynamics and background of the characteristics of each variable that is included in the research, to determine how it affects the results. For example, a study that is conducted that utilizes all African American males to understand the relationship between the public and law enforcement will yield different results than a study that utilizes all white males.

Ordinal Scales are used to measure ranked orders such as; the winner of a beauty contest, and the winner of a race or sports event, but they do not necessarily measure the difference in conceptual value (Malec, T. & Newman, M., 2013). For example, many people view the ratings in a hotel before booking. The higher the amount of stars, the better the hotel is considered to be. One hotel might be rated 4 stars because they have onsite access to a bar and an indoor swimming pool. Another hotel may have similar features as the first hotel but was rated a 2 because the hotel does not have access to the same amenities. Just because the first hotel has 4 stars does not make it twice as good as the second hotel; in fact, a person who does not drink and does not know how to swim may find both hotels equally accommodating.

Interval Scales measure similarities in distance on variables and represent equal intervals, which allows for the mathematical evaluation of averages to determine similarities (Malec, T. & Newman, M., 2013). For example, a person may take 30 minutes to walk a mile and may be able to drive a mile in 5 minutes. The difference in time spent walking, as opposed to time spent driving does not equate to the distance traveled; a mile is a mile, whether you drive, walk, run, or ride a skateboard

Ratio Scales are used to measure physical measurements such a length, width and time, or behavior measurements such. Ratio Scales have true zero points and allow the research to add, subtract and divide scales, to determine the true value. (Malec, T. & Newman, M., 2013). An example of this would be determining the differences in prices between objects; if a table from Walmart cost $50 and a Table from Ashley’s furniture cost $150, we can determine that the table at Ashley’s cost three times the amount of the table that is sold at Walmart.

Malec, T. & Newman, M. (2013). Research methods: Building a knowledge base. San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education, Inc.