Differentiate between acts of cyber-espionage from simple criminal acts or an act of hacktivism? Provide detailed examples.
Use the following as references
Kenney, M. (2015). Cyber-terrorism in a post-stuxnet world. Orbis, 59(1), 111-128. (18 pages), (Accessible via the weekly reading folder within the resources section).
Kramer, Franklin D., et.al. (Eds) From Cyberspace to Cyberpower: Cyber Power and National Security, Chapter 18, “Cyber Crime” 415-436 (32 pages); Chapter 19, “Cyber Terrorism: Menace or Myth” 437-464 (28 pages)
Mandiant, APT1: Exposing One of China’s Cyber Espionage Units, (2013) (Accessible via the weekly reading folder within the resources section).