Reading about Net Present Value (NPV) for this module, you probably thought of it as a technique used only by corporations. But the technique may also apply to your own purchases.
You may have heard a salesperson tell you, â€œThis product pays for itself!â€ While this is probably rare for most products, sometimes there are future savings from certain products that will offset some of the costs. For example, if you buy a newer, more reliable, and more fuel-efficient car, it may save you on repair bills and gas prices compared with your old car. If you are a coffee connoisseur, buying a $100 espresso machine might save you money compared with constantly buying $4 drinks at your local Starbucks.
Think of a purchase you are planning to make or have recently made. How much did it cost? How much per year do you think you will save from this purchase, and for how many years will you get these savings? Estimate the present value of the savings, and subtract the cost of the product. Note that it is rare that any purchase will â€œpay for itselfâ€ (e.g., have a positive NPV). But are the savings enough that the product becomes a lot â€œcheaperâ€ and more worthwhile for you to buy?
Module 3 – Background
Capital Budgeting and the Cost of Capital
Start off the module by viewing these videos from Professor Roberts of the Wharton School of Business at the University of Pennsylvania and Professor Roberts of Rice University. These videos will give you a general overview of the key concepts of capital budgeting and the cost of capital:
Roberts, M. (2017). Decision criteria. Coursera. Retrieved from: https://zh.coursera.org/learn/wharton-finance/lecture/hRuBX/decision-criteria
Weston, J. (2017) Putting it all together as WACC (weighted average cost of capital). Coursera. Retrieved from: https://www.coursera.org/learn/finance-for-non-finance/lecture/07ldB/putting-it-all-together-as-the-wacc-weighted-average-cost-of-capital
Ross, S., Westerfield, R., & Jordan, B. (2007) Chapter 8: Net present value and other investment criteria. Essentials of Corporate Finance. McGraw Hill. http://novellaqalive2.mheducation.com/sites/dl/free/007000000x/484691/Part5_Chap8.pdf [If the link is down, click Net Present Value or Fundamentals of Corporate Finance for an alternative link]
Ross, S., Westerfield, R., & Jordan, B. (2007) Chapter 12: Cost of capital. Essentials of Corporate Finance. McGraw Hill. Retrieved from: http://novellaqalive2.mheducation.com/sites/dl/free/007000000x/484691/Part7_Chap12.pdf
[If the link is down, click Cost of Capital or Fundamentals of Corporate Finance for an alternative link]
Finally, check out the following video that will show you how to make capital budgeting calculations using Excel:
Graulich, V. (2012). How to calculate NPV and IRR. IHateMath.com. Retrieved from: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kCnwCplibAk&t=230s
Codible (2019). NPV and IRR in Excel 2010. Retrieved 08/19/2019 from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qAhV3xG0i8s
If you still have difficulty with the material after reviewing the required materials, check out the optional materials below. Included are two additional videos, including one on using Excel to compute NPV and IRR. Also included are some additional book chapters that cover the same material but explain it in a slightly different way with different examples.
BlueBookAcademy.com. (2015). Learn it FAST: Weighted average cost of capital explained. Retrieved from: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JIvokDfW9AQ&t=48s
Girvin, M. (2010). Investment criteria: NPV, IRR, payback, AAR, profitability index. Retrieved from: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=U2aH4xH5Fz0
Fabozzi, F. J., & Peterson Drake, P. (2009). Chapter 14: Capital budgeting techniques. Finance: Capital markets, financial management, and investment management. Wiley. Available in the Trident Online Library.
Clive, M. (2012). Chapter 14: The cost of capital. Financial management for non-financial managers. Kogan Page. Available in the Trident Online Library.
Block, S. & Hirt, G. (2008). Chapter 12: The capital budgeting decision. Foundations of Financial Management. McGraw-Hill, Retrieved from: http://studylib.net/doc/8149455/12-the-capital-budgeting-decision