Jackson, The south, Slavery read and respond questions


Throughout the semester, you will be required to read Primary and Secondary Source material and write up individual answers to questions based on those documents. The purpose of these assignments is to assess the student’s ability to effectively analyze a question, gather appropriate information from the source or sources at hand, as write a well organized, college/university level answer that reflects the basic expectations of a history survey course. Each paper submitted is worth 75 points.


Answers are to be in complete sentences and written in a manner demonstrating college-level communication skills. Answers that consist of one or two sentences are generally not indicative of excellent work and will be graded accordingly. Answers that consist of several paragraphs but lacking in critical analysis and proper support are also not indicative of excellent work and will be graded accordingly. Be sure to support your answers/arguments with appropriate examples/quotes from the sources. ***Proofread your work before final submittal.


The paper must be submitted to the Dropbox by the specific due date. **Remember, no late assignments will be accepted. Each paper will be automatically submitted to TurnItIn to check for plagiarism, so be sure to use quotes and cites accordingly.


For these modest writing assignments, the following formatting guidelines apply:

1). Please put your name on this paper.

2). Paper must be typed.

3). 1-inch margins should be used.

4). 12-point font should be used

5). For each source, identify the source at the top of the page, Copy and Paste, or, write out each question. Then, provide your answer directly after the posted question.

SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS for each of the primary sources

“King Andrew the First”

1. According to the cartoonist, what was the major tool of Andrew Jackson’s kingly domination?

2. What established institutions is he trampling?

3. List at least two decisions of Jackson the cartoonist appears to disapprove.

4. Is the cartoonist pro- or anti- Jackson? Explain your answer.

“Jackson, the Times”

1. What is the date of the cartoon?

2. What details from the cartoon suggest that it was a time of depression?

3. Who was president at the time suggested in the cartoon? (Use your book to find this out)

4. What hint does the cartoon give that Andrew Jackson may have been responsible for the
economic disaster?


1. How were the slaves portrayed by Chambers?

2. Is the overall impression Chambers’ conveys of the slaves’ behavior largely positive or
negative? Explain.

3. How are the potential buyers and the auctioneer depicted?

4. What reason did Chambers assume as to why no slaves were sold that day?

5. Chambers said that he sought to “touch the heart[s]” of the readers of his weekly paper. He
also said, however, that in this instance he self-consciously avoided being “sentimental,”
that he wished to describe the day’s events “without passion or prejudice.” Which did you
think he accomplished in this description of a slave auction? Did he “touch the hearts” or
did he describe the auction “without passion or prejudice”? Explain why.


1. What was the opinion of Catharine Beecher concerning the cult of domesticity and the role of
women in American society?

2. What was the opinion of Angeline Grimke’ concerning the cult of domesticity and the role of
women in American society?

3. How would Catharine Beecher view the role of women in American society?

4. How would Angelina Grimke’ expand the role of women in American society?

5. With which of these women do you believe most 19th century women agreed? Why?

6. With which of these women do you agree? Why?

“King Andrew The First” Source

“Jackson The Times” source

“Slave Auction” Source

William Chambers (1800—1883) was a Scotsman of considerable reputation as a
printer and publisher at the time of his visit to the United States in 1853. Apprenticed to a
Edinburgh bookseller at the age of fourteen, he had managed, in partnership with his
brother Robert, to establish a highly profitable business in 1832, publishing an
inexpensive weekly paper, Chambers’s Edinburg Journal, which aimed to instruct and
entertain the “humbler orders” of society. The Journal was followed by Chambers’s
Historical Newspaper (1833) and Chambers’s Information for the People (1833-1835). As
part of his plan to disseminate “useful knowledge” among the masses, Chambers also
wrote travel commentaries, including two books based on his tour of the United States:
Things as They Are in America (1854) and American Slavery and Colour (1857). On his
visit to Richmond, which by then was “known as the principal market for the supply of
slaves for the [lower] south,” Chambers was immediately struck by the presence of
blacks “everywhere” and at the sight of an “armed sentinel” in the state capitol. It was a
stark reminder, he thought, of the “danger” posed by the “large infusion of slaves” into
the city. Curious to learn “by what means and at what prices slaves” were sold, Chambers
discovered soon enough that such “research” was easily accomplished, for the “exposure
of ordinary goods in a store is not more open to the public than are the sales of slaves in
Richmond.” In the excerpt reprinted below, he recounts his first experience at a slave
Source: Excerpt from A Documentary History of Slavery in North America, ed. Willie Lee Rose (NewYork:
Oxford University Press, 1976), 146—150. Reprinted by permission of Oxford University

On my arrival, and while making these preliminary observations, the lots for sale had not
made their appearance. In about five minutes afterwards they were ushered in, one after the
other, under the charge of a mulatto, who seemed to act as principal assistant. I saw no whips,
chains, or any other engine of force. Nor did such appear to be required. All the lots took their
seats on two long forms near the stove; none showed any sign of resistance; nor did any one utter
a word. Their manner was that of perfect humility and resignation.
As soon as all were seated, there was a general examination of their respective merits,
by feeling their arms, looking into their mouths, and investigating the quality of their hands and
fingers—this last being evidently an important particular. Yet there was no abrupt rudeness in
making these examinations—no coarse or domineering language was employed. The three
negro men were dressed in the usual manner—in gray woolen clothing. The woman, with three
children, excited my peculiar attention. She was neatly attired, with a coloured handkerchief
bound round her head, and wore a white apron over her gown. Her children were all girls, one
of them a baby at the breast, three months old and the others two and three years of age
respectively, rigged out with clean white pinafores. There was not a tear or an emotion visible
in the whole party. Everything seemed to be considered as a matter of course; and the change of
owners was possibly looked forward to with as much indifference as ordinary hired servants
anticipate a removal from one employer to another.
While intending purchasers were proceeding with personal examinations of the several
lots, I took the liberty of putting a few questions to the mother of the children. The following was
our conversation:
“Are you a married woman?”
“How many children have you had?”
“Where is your husband?”
“In Madison county.”
“When did you part from him?”
“On Wednesday—two days ago.”
“Were you sorry to part from him?”
“Yes, sir,” she replied with a deep sigh; “my heart was a’most broke.”
“Why is your master selling you?”
“I don’t know—he wants money to buy some land— suppose he sells me for that.”
There might not be a word of truth in these answers, for I had no means of testing their
correctness; but the woman seemed to speak unreservedly, and I am inclined to think that she
said nothing but what, if necessary, could be substantiated. I spoke also, to the young woman
who was seated near her. She, like the others, was perfectly black, and appeared stout and
healthy, of which some of the persons present assured themselves by feeling her arms and
ankles, looking into her mouth, and causing her to stand up. She told me she had several brothers
and sisters, but did not know where they were. She said she was a house-servant, and would be
glad to be bought by a good master—looking at me, as if I should not be unacceptable.
I have said that there was an entire absence of emotion in the party of men, women, and
children, thus seated preparatory to being sold. This does not correspond with the ordinary
accounts of slave-sales, which are represented as tearful and harrowing. My belief is, that none
of the parties felt deeply on the subject, or at least that any distress they experienced was but
momentary—soon passed away, and was forgotten. One of my reasons for this opinion rests on a
trifling incident which occurred. While waiting for the commencement of the sale, one of the
gentlemen present amused himself with a pointer-dog, which, at command, stood on its hindlegs,
and took pieces of bread from his pocket. These tricks greatly entertained the row of
negroes, old and young; and the poor woman, whose heart three minutes before was almost
broken, now laughed as heartily as any one.
“Sale is going to commence—this way, gentlemen,” cried a man at the door to a number
of loungers outside; and all having assembled, the mulatto assistant led the woman and her
children to the block, which he helped her to mount. There she stood with her infant at the
breast, and one of her girls at each side. The auctioneer, a handsome, gentlemanly personage,
took his place, with one foot on an old deal-chair with a broken back, and the other raised on the
somewhat more elevated block. It was a striking scene. “Well, gentlemen,” began the salesman,
“here is a capital woman and her three children, all in good health —what do you say for them?
Give me an offer. (Nobody speaks.) I put up the whole lot at 850 dollars—850 dollars—850
dollars (speaking very fast) —850 dollars. Will no one advance upon that? A very extraordinary
bargain, gentlemen. A fine healthy baby. Hold it up. (Mulatto goes up the first step of the block;
takes the baby from the woman’s breast, and holds it aloft with one hand, so as to show that it
was a veritable sucking-baby.) That will do. A woman, still young, and three children, all for 850
dollars. An advance, if you please, gentlemen. (A voice bids 860.) Thank you, sir—860; any one
bids more? (A second voice says, 870; and so on the bidding goes as far as 890 dollars, when it
stops.) That won’t do, gentlemen. I cannot take such a low price. (After a pause, addressing the
mulatto): She may go down.” Down from the block the woman and her children were therefore
conducted by the assistant, and, as if nothing had occurred, they calmly resumed their seats by
the stove.
The next lot brought forward was one of the men. The mulatto beckoning to him with his
hand, requested him to come behind a canvas screen, of two leaves, which was standing near the
back-window. The man placidly rose, and having been placed behind the screen, was ordered to
take off his clothes, which he did without a word or look of remonstrance. About a dozen
gentlemen crowded to the spot while the poor fellow was stripping himself, and as soon as he
stood on the floor, bare from top to toe, a most rigorous scrutiny of his person was instituted.
The clear black skin, back and front, was viewed all over for sores from disease; and there was
no part of his body left unexamined. The man was told to open and shut his hands, asked if he
could pick cotton, and every tooth in his head was scrupulously looked at. The investigation
being at an end, he was ordered to dress himself; and having done so, was requested to walk to
the block.
The ceremony of offering him for competition was gone through as before, but no one
would bid. The other two men, after undergoing similar examinations behind the screen, were
also put up, but with the same result. Nobody would bid for them, and they were all sent back to
their seats. It seemed as if the company had conspired not to buy anything that day. Probably
some imperfections had been detected in the personal qualities of the negroes. Be this as it may,
the auctioneer, perhaps a little out of temper from his want of success, walked off to his desk,
and the affair was so far at an end…
Such were a forenoon’s experiences in the slave-market of Richmond. Everything is
described precisely as it occurred, without passion or prejudice. It would have not been difficult
to be sentimental on a subject which appeals so strongly to the feelings, but I have preferred
telling the simple truth.

“Beecher and Grimke” Source

My Dear Friend …
It is the grand feature of the Divine economy, that there should be different stations of superiority and
subordination, and it is impossible to annihilate this beneficent and immutable law…
In this arrangement of the duties of life, Heaven has appointed to one sex the superior, and to the other
the subordinate station, and this without any reference to the character or conduct of either. It is
therefore as much for the dignity as it is for the interest of females, in all respects to conform to the
duties of this relation…
But while woman holds a subordinate relation in society to the other sex, it is not because it was
designed that her duties or her influence should be any the less important, or all−pervading. But it was
designed that the mode of gaining influence and of exercising power should be altogether different and
Woman is to win every thing by peace and love; by making herself so much respected, esteemed and
loved, that to yield to her opinions and to gratify her wishes will be the free−will offering of the heart.
But this is to be all accomplished in the domestic and social circle. There let every woman become so
cultivated and refined in intellect, that her taste and judgment will be respected; so benevolent in feeling
and action; that her motives will be reverenced; -so unassuming and unambitious, that collision and
competition will be banished; -so “gentle and easy to be entreated,” as that every heart will repose in her
presence; then, the fathers, the husbands, and the sons will find an influence thrown around them to
which they will yield not only willingly but proudly..

Catharine Beecher, An Essay on Slavery and Abolitionism with Reference to the Duty of American Females
(Philadelphia, Penn.: Henry Perkins, 1837), 98.101.

I have often been amused at the vain efforts made to define the rights and responsibilities of immortal
beings as men and women. No one has yet found out just where the line of separation between them
should be drawn, and for this simple reason, that no one knows just how far below man woman is,
whether she be a head shorter in her moral responsibilities, or head and shoulders, or the full length of
his noble stature, below him, i. e. under his feet. Confusion, uncertainty, and great inconsistencies, must
exist on this point, so long as woman is regarded in the least degree inferior to man; but place her where
her Maker placed her, on the same high level of human rights with man, side by side with him, and
difficulties vanish, the mountains of perplexity flow down at the presence of this grand equalizing
principle. Measure her rights and duties by the unerring standard of moral being, not by the false
weights and measures of a mere circumstance of her human existence, and then the truth will be selfevident,
that whatever it is morally right for a man to do, it is morally right for a woman to do. I
recognize no rights but human rights—I know nothing of men’s rights and women’s rights for in Christ
Jesus, there is neither male nor female….
Now, I believe it is woman’s right to have a voice in all the laws and regulations by which she is to be
governed, whether in Church or State; and that the present arrangements of society, on these points,
are a violation of human rights, a rank usurpation of power, a violent seizure and confiscation of what is
sacredly and inalienably hers—thus inflicting upon woman outrageous wrongs, working mischief
incalculable in the social Circle, and in its influence on the world producing only evil, and that
continually. If Ecclesiastical and Civil governments are ordained of God, thenI contend that woman has
just as much right to sit in solemn counsel in Conventions, Conferences, Associations and General
Assemblies, as man—just as much right to it upon the throne of England, or in the Presidential chair of
the United States.

Angelina Grimke’, Letters to Catharine Beecher, in Reply to an Essay on Slavery and Abolitionism, Addressed to A.E.
Grimke’ (Boston, Mass.: I. Knapp, 1838), 113.