I have 3 of my classmates posts. I need you to respond to each one separately. Also, one source at least for each one of them. Don’t write about how good their posts or how bad. All you need to do is to choose one point of the post and explore it a little bit with one source support for each response. The paper should be APA style.
the question was: You are an Emergency Manager in your respective country. A highly infectious influenza strain has been detected. There is a limited quantity of the vaccine to prevent this particular strain of influenza. Discuss your plan for distributing this vaccine. Who receives the vaccine and who does not? How did you come to this conclusion?
this is the 1st post from my classmate FARH need to responded :
In a setting where there is a limited quantity of the influenza vaccine to prevent the highly infectious influenza strain, the distribution of the vaccine will primarily concentrate on high-risk groups (Longini & Halloran, 2005). The delivery will focus on those individuals who keep the social infrastructure and health system operating. The distribution of the vaccines will, therefore, focus on the protection of the population of those most at risk.
My vaccination strategy would be that which covers a high-risk population while simultaneously concentrating the remaining vaccines in schoolchildren aged 5 to 18. The distribution of the vaccines in this manner will protect accessible high-risk individuals. At the same time, it will significantly reduce the spread of influenza in the public by concentrating the vaccine in school children, who have been deemed to be most responsible for the transmission of influenza (Longini & Halloran, 2005).
The rationale behind my strategy is that schoolchildren have had the most leading illness rates of influenza attacks since influenza A’s introduction to the US in 1968-1969 (Lafond, Englund, Tam, & Bresee, 2013). The attack rates’ pattern has been consistent in the years where influenza A and B have been widely circulating (Flannery, et al., 2017). The high level of the transmission of influenza among and children result from less prior immunity and more exposure potential in comparison to adults.
Detailed influenza mathematical models have revealed that for the influenza strains that transmit well in children. The vaccination of say 70% of the children thus goes a long way into reducing the transmission in the whole community below the epidemic levels. These mathematical models have illustrated that focusing on the distribution of vaccines to school children is optimal for decreasing overall influenza mortality and morbidity. Therefore, if we vaccinate 70 percent of children, then we can protect those high-risk individuals even if they do not have vaccines against influenza.
Flannery, B., Reynolds, S. B., Blanton, L., Santibanez, T. A., Oâ€™Halloran, A., Lu, P.-J., . . . Fry, A. M. (2017). Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness Against Pediatric Deaths: 2010â€“2014. Official Journal of the American Academy of Pediatrics , 2016-4244.
Lafond, K. E., Englund, J. A., Tam, J. S., & Bresee, J. S. (2013). Overview of Influenza Vaccines in Children . Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society, 368-378.
Longini, I. M., & Halloran, M. E. (2005). Strategy for Distribution of Influenza Vaccine to High-Risk Groups and Children . American Journal of Epidemiology, 303â€“306.
this is the 2nd post from my classmate TARIQ need to responded :
Influenza is among the most significant causes of death during winter seasons (Tsang & Cowling, 2016). The disease is associated with a high rate of mortality and morbidity among various individuals based on their physical, genetic, and environmental factors. When there is an outbreak of any influenza strain, the emergency department needs to respond to the issue immediately to avoid its spread. People within the affected region can be protected from the virus through vaccination. In a case where a highly infectious influenza strain has been detected in a given region, an emergency manager can help the people within the area through immunization. In such a case, people who are vulnerable to the infection need to be vaccinated to lower their chances of getting the disease. However, if the quantity of vaccine is too little to be used among the entire population, the emergency manager should administer it according to the level of vulnerability to the people involved. Therefore, based on a situation where an emergency manager with a limited quantity of vaccine has detected a highly infectious influenza strain, the aspects that he or she needs to consider are the age, the physical condition of the people, and previous infection among individuals.
When considering age, individuals who are most susceptible to influenza virus are the children and the elderly. Individuals with less than five years of age and those with over sixty-five years are more likely to be infected by the influenza virus compared to the rest of the population (Gordon & Reingold, 2018). Therefore, the emergency manager is supposed to consider distributing the vaccine to individuals with less than five years and those aged over 65 years since their immunity is weaker in fighting the influenza virus.
Several aspects are determined when considering physical conditions. However, one of the physical states mostly associated with the influenza virus is pregnancy. Pregnant mothers are more likely to die when infected by the influenza virus (Tsang & Cowling, 2016). This implies that expectant mothers are among the people who are supposed to be most considered when the virus is detected in an area.
Individuals previously infected by the influenza virus are less likely to contract the disease again compared to those who have never suffered from the infection. When an individual is exposed to a particular influenza strain, the body develops the immunity to fight the subsequent infections (Chattopadhyay & Rzhetsky, 2018). This implies that the emergency manager should consider whether the influenza virus previously infected an individual or not. Those who have never been affected by the infection needs to be given priority compared to the ones earlier infected.
Therefore, due to the little quantity of the influenza vaccine available, the emergency manager needs to distribute the vaccine among the children aged less than five years, the elderly with over sixty-five years, the pregnant mothers, and individuals who have never been infected previously. The reason for selecting these individuals is because their immunity is weaker in fighting the influenza virus detected compared to their counterparts.
Chattopadhyay, I. & Rzhetsky, A. (2018). The conjunction of factors triggering waves of seasonal influenza. Elife, 7, e30756.
Gordon, A., & Reingold, A. (2018). The burden of influenza: a complex problem. Current epidemiology reports, 5(1), 1-9.
Tsang, T. & Cowling, B. J. (2016). Household transmission of influenza virus. Trends in microbiology, 24(2), 123-133.
this is the 3rd post from my classmate WAEL OT need to responded :
Vaccines are necessary to rescue and protect people from getting infections. In this case, as an Emergency manager, I need to be creative and ensure that I maximize ways to save lives in an influenza outbreak. First, I will impose a quarantine, ensure vaccination of healthcare providers, and the group at risk. However, the protection will not be applied to the infected people and those who were not in contact with those with the illness for the scarcity of the vaccines.
As a manager, my decision will be based on protecting individuals from infection and minimize spread by imposing a quarantine in collaboration with other administration leaders. In this case, people will be restricted from movement to reduce the spread of influenza. Moreover, the first group I will ensure they have received the vaccination will be health care providers, for them to be able to carry out the exercise effectively (“A Model Plan for Influenza Pandemic Preparedness,” 2012). I will ensure those who were infected are separated to avoid further spread. Immediately, those who were in touch and near the infested should be vaccinated, for they have high possibilities of being infected.
Those with influenza will not be vaccinated since vaccines serve prevention purposes but not curing. They will be taken to hospitals for medication and vaccines can be applied after recovery (“Influenza Vaccination: A Summary for Clinicians | CDC,” 2019). Those who are in safer quarantined zones away from the infected people have low possibilities of being infected, and for the scarcity of vaccines, they can be considered in another phase of vaccination.
Conclusively, I will consider the healthcare providers when giving out vaccines for them to be able to reduce morbidity and mortality. The second group is those at risk to prevent them from getting the infection. However, I will not vaccinate those infected since vaccines have to serve the purpose of prevention. Those who away from the infected will not be vaccinated, for they were at safer sides from the infection.
A Model Plan for Influenza Pandemic Preparedness. (2012), 5(1), 2-119. Retrieved from http://www.fao.org/docs/eims/upload/221474/nationa…
Influenza Vaccination: A Summary for Clinicians | CDC. (2019). Retrieved 10 November 2019, from https://www.cdc.gov/flu/professionals/vaccination/…