University of New Haven Challenges Posed by Pregnant Patients in A Disaster Paper

List at least 6 challenges posed by pregnant patients in a disaster or MCI situation?

here are three different answer just paraphrase really good one

answer 1

Disaster and MCI Situations.

Natural or man-made disasters cause major setbacks to lives. It often takes people years to recover from the negative effects of those. Disasters of large scales result in a number of casualties. Pregnant women are at a higher risk when catastrophes occur (Mackonochie, 2010). Some of the perils that face expectant women in such situations are:

  • Violence against women- Pregnant patients are more prone to sexual violence during disasters. Rapists and sexual predators take advantage of the chaos to inflict harm on them.
  • Pre-natal care and delivery in emergencies- Pregnant women are unable to get necessary amenities before, during, and after labor. Delivering babies become hectic tasks because emergency services are overwhelmed.
  • Poor nutrition- Expectant women need to maintain high levels of hygiene and nutrition. Getting the right nutrients and supplements is often not possible during disasters (Taylor, 2015). On the other hand, having balanced diets is crucial for the development of unborn children.
  • Keeping track and possession of documents related to pregnancy- Due to disruption of services and poor amenities during disasters, documents related to birth and identification may be lost. These documents are crucial for establishing nationalities of children, addressing their medical conditions, and proving their ownership.
  • Poor coordination and failure to prioritize- Medical personnel may fail to adequately treat women in their advanced stages of pregnancies during emergencies. In cases of mass casualties, doctors and nurses may overlook the needs of pregnant patients (Farquharson & Stephenson, 2017). This can lead to complications in their pregnancies, and even loss of lives.
  • Psychological discomfort- The mental anguish caused by disasters can lead to stress, anxiety, and depression in pregnant women. Prolonged psychological discomfort can even result in miscarriages. Hence, having peace of mind is crucial for fetal development. This challenge can be addressed by sufficiently dealing with the root cause of disasters, which is environmental degradation.


Farquharson, R., & Stephenson, M. (2017). Early pregnancy. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University press.

Macknochie, A. (2010). The practical encyclopedia of pregnancy & babycare. London: Hermes House.

Taylor, R. (2015). Family Medicine : Principles and Practice. New York: Springer.

answer 2

List at least 6 challenges posed by pregnant patients in a disaster or MCI situation

  1. Family and Social Support. pregnant women during her pregnancy might experience a depression. There’re symptom for the depression like a low or sad mood, Loss of interest in fun activities, Changes in appetite, sleep, and energy, Problems thinking, concentrating, and making decisions, Feelings of worthlessness, shame, or guilt, Thoughts that life is not worth living. So family and social support networks are really important for pregnant women especially during the disaster event which is harder in disaster to make sure to reunion every pregnant woman with her family.
  2. Need for Services. Pregnant mothers should receive consistent, ongoing prenatal care and engage in prenatal education activities to give birth to a healthy, full-term baby. Nonetheless, access to many services may be affected by a variety of system and personal barriers.
  3. Breastfeeding. Breastfeeding is the safest and often the only reliable source of nutrition for infants affected by disasters, there may be no clean drinking water, there may be no sterile environment, or It may be impossible to ensure cleaning and sterilization of feeding utensils. Breast milk alone is sufficient to support optimal growth and development for approximately six months after birth but it will be difficult if the mother’s health deteriorates or stress and disruption of daily routines pose new challenges for breastfeeding women which increasing the need for assistance.
  4. Access to Infant Care Supplies. Disasters have the potential to disrupt an woman’s access to necessary infant supplies. Women who are not breastfeeding may need access to potable water to mix with powdered formula for their infant. Safe storage and preparation of pumped breast milk and infant formula may require access to refrigeration and heating. Lack of access to safe storage and sterile preparation can be detrimental to the health and wellness of the infant.
  5. Pregnant Health and Safety Outcomes. Disaster related injuries and illnesses can exact a massive toll on population health and wellbeing on the mother and her child during the pregnancy or even after she give a birth.
  6. Accessibility to health care provider and medication. During disaster pregnant women needs to continuously follow up with her doctor and keep taking her medications which is hard to be provided during the disaster and not all the shelter has (OB/GYN) physician or pediatrician for her infant.


Sato, M., Nakamura, Y., Atogami, F., Horiguchi, R., Tamaki, R., Yoshizawa, T., & Oshitani, H. (2016). Immediate Needs and Concerns among Pregnant Women During and after Typhoon Haiyan (Yolanda). PLoS Currents, 8, ecurrents.dis.29e4c0c810db47d7fd8d0d1fb782892c.

answer 3

List at least 6 challenges posed by pregnant patients in a disaster or MCI situation

  1. Mobility: Complications of pregnancy could develop from the violent movement associated with a violent disaster or emergency evacuation. Premature rupture of the embryotic sac can bring premature birth, and or emergency c-section.
  2. Medical treatment and monitoring: Obstetricians may not be immediately available to assist in a disaster situation. Determining the severity of a pregnant women’s injury should involve the condition of the fetus also. Having specialty doctors could take planning and gathering information on how many pregnant women are in need.
  3. Stress: Any change in condition could cause stress for anyone. Being stressed during pregnancy should be avoided to prevent complications during pregnancy.
  4. Nutrition: In the worst scenario of disasters food can be limited. Having certain food that can help pregnancy is important for fetus growth and immune system health. Having water after a disaster could be difficult not only having nutritious food available for mother and baby.
  5. Pregnancy cravings: Cravings during pregnancy are relatively common but, craving things like toilet paper and other things not meant for consumption. My Fiancée would eat toilet paper often or sometimes just chew on it. Our doctor related it to low iron that would bring on cravings for the taste, specifically for toilet paper. This could be an indication in a incident to check for Pica in pregnant women in a disaster situation. “Some pregnant women develop a craving to eat substances that are not food, such as chalk, clay, laundry starch or soap. This is a condition called pica, and it may indicate a mineral deficiency or severe anemia.” (
  6. Post disaster outcomes: Illness, injury, stress, mental health and other factors could affect the post pregnancy health for infant and mother. “Adverse effects of disaster may continue long-term, or women who are most vulnerable to disaster may be also vulnerable to poor pregnancy outcome.” (Harville E. W. et. Al. 2015)


Harville, Emily W; Giarratano, G; Savage, J; Barcelona De Mendoza, V; Zotkiewicz, T. (2015) Birth Outcomes in a Disaster Recovery Environment: New Orleans Women After Katrina. Maternal and Child Health Journal; New York. (19)11, 2512-2522.…

Food Cravings During Pregnancy. (2017) Pregnancy Birth and Baby. Health Direct. Web.…