Week 4 Health Belief Model Discussion & Response

I need help with a Health & Medical question. All explanations and answers will be used to help me learn.

The Health belief model (HBM) is a way to demonstrate the correlation between health behavior that are vital in behavior change and the information was later used to design intervention methods and evaluations. The HBM was developed in an effort to examine why people do not participate in disease prevention programs such as screenings. In an effort to solve this issue, peoples’ behavioral responses to detecting diseases were examined. Throughout this examination, premises were created based on the behavioral responses, for example, if an individual is at risk for a disease or the condition was serious then they would take heed to the prevention method (Glanz et al., 2015).

Furthermore, strengths in for the HBM is the predictability entity which were more effective when the 7 constructs are put into play, such as perceived susceptibility and severity, which is the belief of contracting a disease that is serious or life-threatening (perceived threat). There is perceived barrier, which are obstacles that prevent the individuals from taking actions, such as cost, or fear of results from screening. Lastly there is cues to action which are cues that triggers actions such as symptoms which causes the individuals to seek help such as screenings. Whereas, the weaknesses to the HBM are that beliefs, attitudes, social determinants, environmental factors and economic factors are not taken into account. Situations where the HBM is used are vaccination behavior such as HPV or H1N1 vaccination, screening such as colon cancer screening, and symptom-promoted health care behavior (Glanz et al., 2015) (Jones et al., 2015).

The transtheoretical model (TTM) is an integrative model that uses various stages of change to assess and promote health behavior change to at least 48 behaviors. These stages are “pre-contemplation” which is the individual refusing to take action and “contemplation,” which is the individuals deciding to take action to change their behavior. There is “preparation” which is the individuals taking action within a month towards the behavior change and there is “action” which is the individual making specific action to change their behavior. Additionally, there is “maintenance” which is the individual sustaining the action and “termination” where the individual achieved the behavior change and feeling zero temptation to return to the old behavior. An example of a situation where this model is appropriate is smoking cessation. Some weakness to the TTM is a lack of data produced on the significant prevention effects on preventing substance abuse among children because the TTM does not apply to children and adolescent effectively. A strength is the model is able to promote behavior change for 12 to 48 different behavioral conditions such as weight control, safer sex, smoking cessation, and mammography screening, etc., (Glanz et al., 2015) (Hashemzadeh et al., 2019).

What they both have in common is that the models change motivation into actions, along with elaborating on the positive consequences when the individuals engage in positive behavior and promoting negative consequences when they engage in negative behavior (Glanz et al., 2015).


Glanz, K., Rimer, B. K., & Viswanath, K. (2015). Health behavior: Theory, research, and practice (5th ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Hashemzadeh, M., Rahimi, A., Zare-Farashbandi, F., Alavi-Naeini, M. A., & Dael, A. (2019). Transtheoretical Model of Health Behavioral Change: A Systematic Review. Iranian Journal Of Nursing and Midwifery Research, 24(2), 83-90. Doi 10.4103/ijnmr.IJNMR_94_17

Jones, L. C., Jensen, D. J., Scherr, L. C., Brown, R. N., Christy, K., & Weaver, J. (2015). The Health Belief Model as an Explanatory Framework in Communication Research: Exploring Parallel, Serial, and Moderated Mediation. Health Communication, 30(6), 556-576. Doi: 10.1080/10410236.2013.873363.

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