- Which of the following statements defines the term “antecedents”?
They are characteristics that predict later initiation of drug use.
They are variables that are statistically related to some other variables, such as drug use.
They are substances that cause one to escalate to more deviant forms of drug use.
They are those forms of drug use that are not considered either normal or acceptable by the society at large.
- ________ generally refers to the use of prescribed drugs in greater amounts than, or for purposes other than, those prescribed by a physician or dentist.
Deviant drug use
- According to results from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health, which of these ethnic groups reports the highest rate of use of alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana?
- One of the most important risk factors for drug use is:
having friends who use marijuana or other substances.
being heavily involved in extracurricular activities.
having lots of money.
believing that your parents are a source of social support.
- Which of the following is a limitation of the survey questionnaire studies on drug use among adolescents and young adults?
The sample sizes used for research studies are too small.
This technique can be used only on students who are in classrooms.
The researchers who conduct these studies tend to be biased.
The results do not reflect trends in drug use over time due to fluctuating tendencies to overreport or underreport drug use.
- Michelle is an engineering graduate. She tried cocaine at a friend’s party, and it gave her an altered state of consciousness. She gradually became a regular user of the substance. With every use, she increased the chance of using the substance again. Identify this process of repeated use.
Deviant drug use
- Drugs have played a significant role in human society:
for about the past 100 years.
only since the 1960s.
for thousands of years.
only in Europe and North America.
- One very consistent finding is that students who report ________ are less likely to smoke cigarettes, drink alcohol, or use any type of illicit drug than other students.
having high self-esteem
being well-off financially
having more involvement with religion
having lots of friends
- One of the general principles of psychoactive drug use is that:
all psychoactive drugs should be banned.
most people are unable to control their own drug use.
every drug has an opposite drug that can counteract it.
drugs, per se, are not good or bad.
- Which of the following statements is true of the relationships between substance use and various indicators of individual differences in personality variables?
Large-scale survey studies of substance use in the general population have strong correlations with most traditional personality traits.
Correlational studies of long-term substance use among young adults have shown a strong link between poor academic performances and substance use.
Various ways of measuring a factor called impulsivity can be correlated with rates of substance use in the general population.
Personality factors play a big role in whether someone decides to try alcohol or marijuana but a small role in whether that use develops into a serious problem.
- About how many arrests are made in the U.S. each year for drug-law violations?
- In the context of substance use, ________ is defined as a procedure in which a behavioral event is followed by a consequent event such that the behavior is then more likely to be repeated.
- When using a substance makes normal activities such as driving result in harmful accidents, this is called:
- DAWN data provides all of the following except:
information about which drugs are associated with the greatest number of ER visits.
clear measures of the toxicity of individual drugs.
data regarding problems associated with alcohol-in-combination.
general information about trends in drug-related ER visits.
- In an annual study done by the U.S. Justice Department, people arrested for various crimes are administered urine tests to detect the presence of drugs. In 2013, about ________ percent of the adult male arrestees tested positive for at least one illicit drug.
between 60 and 80
between 10 and 30
- The DSM-5 does not define addiction as such, but it has diagnostic criteria for:
substance use disorders.
drug-associated bipolar disorder.
- Which of the following is an example of chronic physiological toxicity?
High blood pressure from smoking
A motivational syndrome
Paranoia from methamphetamine use
Respiratory arrest from an alcohol overdose
- In the context of substance use, which of the following is the significance of the animal research that led to the positive reinforcement model?
It indicates that prescription drugs are important contributors to overall drug toxicity figures.
It implies that psychological dependence is more important than physical dependence in explaining repeated drug use.
It points out the scientific value of the concept of reinforcement for understanding physical dependence.
It proves that using one of the gateway substances causes one to escalate to more deviant forms of drug use.
- The Drug Abuse Warning Network:
is a system of free public-service announcements.
is a voluntary organization for teachers and police officers.
monitors drug-related medical emergencies.
monitors arrest rates for various drug-law violations.
- In 2008 it was reported that the incidence of new HIV infections associated with intravenous drug use had declined by 80 percent in the past 20 years. According to the text, which of these factors led to this decrease?
Syringe exchange programs
Sexual abstinence education
Increased Narcotics Anonymous attendance
Decreased use of hormonal contraceptives
- The Harrison Act of 1914:
required pharmacists and physicians to register and pay a tax to dispense certain drugs.
made it a crime to prescribe heroin to dependent users.
regulated all over-the-counter medicines.
regulated peyote and marijuana.
- Which of the following terms is defined as chemicals that are close relatives of controlled substances but not themselves listed on one of the controlled substance schedules?
Investigational new drugs
- According to the text, which of the following most accurately describes the recent drug laws in Portugal?
Possession for personal use of all drugs is decriminalized.
Possession for personal use of all drugs will receive stiffer penalties.
Possession for personal use of marijuana is decriminalized.
Possession for personal use of marijuana will receive stiffer penalties.
- In the early 1800s, ________ was the medical doctor’s most reliable and effective medicine that was used for a variety of conditions, but mainly for pain relief.
- Substances with high abuse potential and no currently accepted medical use are listed in:
the DAWN report.
- Which of the following acts provided the rootstock on which all the modern U.S. laws regulating pharmaceuticals have been grafted?
The Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act
The Food and Drug Administration Safety and Innovation Act
The Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act
The Pure Food and Drugs Act
- Before a new drug is released to the market, the FDA requires:
a pricing comparison with competing drugs.
proof that no adverse reactions will occur.
three phases of clinical testing, with each phase involving more people.
personal testimony from patients who have tried the drug.
- It is estimated that ________ percent of the illegal drug supply is seized by federal agencies each year.
more than 50
- In the context of marketing a new drug, which of the following is the significance of the 1997 Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Modernization Act?
It required advertisements for prescription drugs (mostly in medical journals) to contain a summary of information about adverse reactions to the drug.
It included the requirement that companies seek approval of any testing to be done with humans before clinical trials are conducted.
It included the guidelines for annual postmarketing reporting by the companies of adverse reactions to some medications.
It tightened the procedures whereby drug company salespeople could provide free samples to physicians.
- The U.S. Supreme Court has ruled that it is legal to use urine tests to screen students in public high schools for drug use:
only if there is evidence that the individual student has used drugs.
only with the parents’ permission.
only after the student has been in a treatment program.
if they are involved in extracurricular activities.
- Weight control, aggression, impulsivity, and psychological depression have all been associated with:
the parasympathetic branch.
- Parkinson’s disease produces tremors and muscular rigidity because of damage to:
acetylcholine neurons in the parasympathetic branch.
dopamine neurons in the nigrostriatal pathway.
norepinephrine neurons in the locus ceruleus.
the blood-brain barrier.
- Parasympathetic and sympathetic refer to the two branches of the:
autonomic nervous system.
- Drugs can affect neurotransmitter systems in two main ways: either by altering the availability of the neurotransmitter in the synapse, or by:
acting on the blood-brain barrier.
altering hormone levels.
acting directly on the receptors.
increasing blood pressure.
- Which of the following regions is located in the medulla oblongata in the brain and is important for triggering nausea and vomiting?
The area postrema
The choroid plexus
The posterolateral sulcus
The tuberculum cinereum
- The neurotransmitter at the end organ of the sympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system is ________.
- Which of the following terms is defined as the maintenance of an environment of body functions within a certain range (e.g., temperature, blood pressure)?
- Whether the effect of a neurotransmitter is excitatory or inhibitory depends on:
blood sugar level.
the type of receptor.
the rate of synthesis.
- Neurotransmitter molecules are released into the small space between two neurons called the ________.
- The ________ is an important link between the brain and the pituitary gland and is involved in feeding, drinking, temperature regulation, and sexual behavior.
- If repeated exposure to a drug increases the activity of the CYP450 enzyme that is responsible for metabolizing that drug, then later doses will be less effective than the first few doses. This is an example of:
drug disposition tolerance.
an active metabolite.
- When neither the person taking the drug nor the person evaluating the effects of the drug knows which people are getting the experimental drug and which people are getting the placebo, this procedure is referred to as a(n) ________.
- With increasing doses of any useful drug, there is usually an increase in the number and severity of:
effects on the stomach.
- The potency of a drug is defined in terms of:
the magnitude of the effect it produces.
its dependence potential.
whether it has a detectable odor.
the amount required to produce an effect.
- The effects of a drug that depend on the presence of a chemical at certain concentrations in a target tissue are called ________.
- Regardless of the route of administration, psychoactive drugs reach the brain tissue by way of the ________.
- The blood-brain barrier:
is fully developed in humans when they are born.
is designed to allow all drug compounds into the brain.
cannot be penetrated, even with trauma to the brain.
prevents many drugs from entering the brain.
- After oral administration, most absorption of the drug molecules takes place in the:
- ________ are a group of analgesic (painkilling) drugs that produce a relaxed, dreamlike state; moderately high doses often induce sleep.
- Richard is a researcher in a pharmaceutical company. His company develops a new drug to treat chronic joint pain in humans. He wants to check the effect of this drug on a group of elderly people. He divides the group into an experimental group and a control group. He gives the new drug to the experimental group, while he gives a noneffective look-alike drug to the control group. Both groups give the same result. Identify the effect felt by the control group, despite not taking the drug.