1. Using our core concept of flow-down gradients, explain the movement of glucose in and out of the nephron.

1. Using our core concept of flow-down gradients, explain the movement of glucose in and out of the nephron.

2. Using our core concept of homeostasis, explain how the kidneys are involved in controlling fluid osmolarity.

3.Compare the structure and functions of the major regions of the nephron.

4. Compare the structure and function of cortical and juxtamedullary nephrons.

5. Discuss the effect of renin, angiotensin, and aldosterone on blood pressure. (Be thorough, specific, and accurate).

6. Explain how the vertical concentration gradient in the medulla and the concentration of vasopressin influences the volume and osmolarity of urine produced.

7. Compare the mechanism and effect of loop diuretics, thiazide diuretics, ACE inhibitors, and ARBs (angiotensin II receptor blockers).

8. Explain the four stages of external respiration and identify the gradients (driving force) and resistance of each stage.

9. Explain and give the formula for Boyle’s law and how changes in thoracic volume is related to Boyle’s law.

10. Compare tidal volume, expiratory reserve volume, inspiratory reserve volume, residual volume, vital capacity, total lung capacity, inspiratory capacity, and functional residual capacity. List the average values for each volume and capacity.

11. Explain how local mechanisms allow for the matching of ventilation and perfusion.

12. Explain how the oxygen dissociation curve is related to the properties and function of hemoglobin.

13. Discuss how changes in temperature, PCO2, pH and 2,3 DPG concentration shift the oxygen dissociation curve.

14. Explain how oxygen dissociation curve shifts affect oxygen loading in the lungs and unloading at the tissues.

This answer need use book . and at least minimum 150 words for each question . that the professor comment for lest one

(All questions need an introductory paragraph demonstrating your knowledge of the key points. You then need to explain how the specific example of the question . Your responses are intermingled. You are on the right track, but just need to work out getting more detail and organizing your response a little better.)