1. What are the three characteristics of sine waves that can be manipulated to represent data?


Formulate complete responses to the following fourteen questions. You may craft your response after each question and let the document grow as you respond. The questions have been highlighted to help delineate the questions from the responses. Submit your completed responses under Assignment 3 in Week 10 on Blackboard by the end of that week. The questions cover topics that are discussed in Weeks 1 through 3.

1. What are the three characteristics of sine waves that can be manipulated to represent data?

The three sine waves characteristics that can be manipulated are;

· Amplitude-which is the measure of the wave power or height and is basically the maximum distance from a wave peak to its zero value. It occurs to remain the same if it is measured from the zero value to the positive peak or from the zero value to the negative peak.

· Phase-it refers to a certain time point within a wave’s cycle. It is usually measured in degrees, whereby 00 represents the start of the cycle, whereas 3600 represents the end. The positive point peak is represented by 900 and the zero point within the positive and negative peak is considered to be 1800 and the negative peak point is 2700.

· Frequency- it is the term used in reference to the number of cycles that can be observed within one second and its unit of measure is hertz (HZ).

2. Why are waves important in communication?

Waves are of great essence in communication in that:

· Waves do propagate or in other words travel not only through space but also wires, as well as, fibers.

· Most importantly, patterns can possibly be encoded within waves.

3. Describe some options regarding light transmission in communication technology.

Wireless transmission through the use of light frequencies can take place within infrared, visible, or even ultraviolet light spectra. Theoretically, the raw transmission rates can happen to be relatively higher as compared to RF transmission as a result of the higher transmission frequency, as well as, available bandwidth. However, practically, atmospheric interference tends to create big barriers by rapidly attenuating light signals. Infrared transmissions turn out to be limited to just a few dozen meters, whereas laser transmissions within the visible spectrum happen to be restricted to several hundred meters. Another barrier to massive use is the need of a line of sight that is not obstructed.

4. What are the two main synchronization problems that can occur during message transmission?

The two major synchronization problems that can potentially emerge during message transmission include:

· Keeping the sender together with the receiver clocks synchronized in the course of transmission.

· Synchronization of the start of every message.

5. List two characteristics in which error detection and correction methods vary.

· Size, as well as, content of redundant transmission.

· The likelihood that the error free message will possible be detected as an error.

6. List and describe four physical topologies.

· Bus- the nodes are networked within a linear sequence that is terminated at both ends.

· Mesh-it connects each node to all other nodes and it is practically applicable for the considerably small networks only.

· Ring-The network takes the form of a ring, whereby tokens or packets move to the succeeding node within the ring. Just a single node has the packet at every given moment.

· Star- Refers to the network whereby all nodes are linked to a central point. It is disadvantageous in that all nodes get the same signal, increasing the chances of collisions together with security concerns.

7. What was ARPANET?

ARPANET refers to the network which turned out to be the foundation for the Internet. It was based on an idea initially published within 1967 and was developed under the U.S ARPA (Advanced Research Projects Agency). ARPANET capitalized on the concept of sending information within small bits termed as packets, which could be directed to diverse paths and redesigned at their destination. Further development of ARPANET led to the invention of the present-day Internet.

8. Describe the application layer of the TCP/IP model.

9. Describe the network interface layer in the TCP/IP model.

10. What are the call management functions that VoIP must perform?

11. Why were fourth-generation languages developed?

12. What does a programming language define?

13. List two capabilities of a symbolic debugger.

14. What are factors have caused Java’s popularity to far exceed most initial expectations?

15. List three components that an integrated development environment generally includes.

16. Why has changed as a result of hardware cost declining over time as a proportion of total system costs?